There are “striking” geographical variations in the numbers of people who donate kidneys after they die, a study has found.

Mapping out a picture of kidney donation across the UK, researchers found that some regions have half the rates of kidney donation than the best performing places.

The study, published in the British Journal of Anaesthesia, found that Glasgow has the lowest donation rates and Cardiff has the highest.

In England alone, Manchester has the lowest donation rate with 55 per cent fewer deceased donors than Cambridge - which topped the list.

About 6,000 people are currently on the waiting list for a kidney transplant in the UK. In 2012-13, 373 people died while waiting for a kidney transplant.

Two-thirds of transplanted kidneys are from deceased donors. Kidneys from a certain type of donor are offered in the first instance to patients in the same area.

“Therefore, variations in regional donation rates identified in this research indicate that patients on waiting lists will increasingly be affected by the level of donation rates in their locality,” the authors said.

Researchers from Cambridge University and NHS Blood and Transplant found that of 27,482 patients who died in critical care between April 2010 and December 2011, 1,528, or 5.5 per cent, became kidney donors.

But they found “significant variations” from the average rate.

In Glasgow and Manchester there were “significantly lower” donation rates, with 3.2 per cent and 4.5 per cent respectively.

At the other end of the spectrum Cardiff and Cambridge had significantly higher donation rates - of 7.5 per cent and 7 per cent.

Report author Dominic Summers, from the department of surgery at the University of Cambridge, said: “We did not expect to find such marked differences in organ donation rates between different regions in the UK after already taking into account the various factors known to influence the number of organ donors.

“Our findings indicate that despite huge progress in organ donation rates over the last five years, there is considerable scope to increase these rates further and improve more lives through kidney transplantation.”

Paul Murphy, national clinical lead for organ donation at NHS Blood and Transplant, added: “Every potential donor is precious and can save lives, but if they are not identified and referred then they, and their family, are denied the opportunity to be an organ donor and to transform the lives of others after their death.”

Responding to the report, Marc Clancy, consultant transplant surgeon and lead director for NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde Transplantation, said: “It is deeply disappointing that this out-of-date report is being portrayed as reflective of the current status of kidney donation within Glasgow.

“At a most basic level the report is misleading in that it refers to data drawn from intensive care units from across the whole of the West of Scotland as being ‘Glasgow’ specific.

“However of greater concern is that fact that the data, drawn from a single point in time more than two years ago, fails to reflect the significant increase in donor rates that has been achieved across the West of Scotland - from ICUs from Dumfries to Fort William - over the past two years.

“Furthermore the figures quoted in the report are in no way whatsoever a reflection of the West of Scotland Renal Transplant Unit based in Glasgow which has increased transplant numbers way above most other UK transplant units.”

He added: “Given the vast increase in donation rates achieved in Scotland in the past two years, the publication of this out-of-date report is deeply unhelpful and disruptive to those who have worked tirelessly to drive donation rates up to unprecedented levels in Scotland.