Assessment of patient's condition Case history Observations (pain, blood pressure, temperature, pulse, respiratory rate, blood-glucose measurement, oxygen saturation measurement) Physical examinations and assessments Chest examination (respiratory assessment, heart, heart sounds) Abdominal examination (tenderness or guarding, swelling or oedema, bowel sounds, abnormalities) Rectal examination Vaginal examination Central nervous system assessment Patient presentation (shocked, cyanosis, psychological state)